Topics in that vein include the nature of synonymy, the origins of meaning itself, and how any meaning can ever really be known. Avicenna 's system of logic was responsible for the introduction of hypothetical syllogism, 9 temporal modal logic, 10 11 and inductive logic. For the most part this discussion of logic deals only with deductive logic. Different philosophers have had varied ideas about the nature of reason, and there is also disagreement about the subject matter of philosophy. Many other ancient and medieval philosophers applied mathematical ideas and methods to their philosophical claims.
The Essential Husserl: Basic Writings in Transcendental Phenomenology. The Socratic period is named in honor of the most recognizable figure in Western philosophy, Socrates, who, along with his pupil Plato, revolutionized philosophy through the use of the Socratic method, which developed the very general philosophical methods of definition, analysis, and synthesis. The senses of sentences are thoughts, while their referents are truth-values (the True or the False). The "ordinary language philosophy" thinkers shared a common outlook with many older philosophers ( Jeremy Bentham, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and John Stuart Mill and it was this style of philosophical inquiry that characterized English-language philosophy for the second half of the twentieth century. Because of these differences, he favored an aristocracy of the able and virtuous (meritocracy). This view gave rise to three questions: Is an idea a true copy of the real thing that it represents? Investigations into how language interacts with the world are called "theories of reference." Gottlob Frege was an advocate of a mediated reference theory.
Commensurability (philosophy of science) - Wikipedia
What is certain is that, to one degree or another, the Ancient Hindu tradition and the Ancient (though less ancient) Greek tradition, being both part of the Indo-European civilization have interacted, with India being the source. The idea of language is often related to that of logic in its Greek sense as "Logos meaning discourse or dialectic. Both traditions tend to strongly reject any claim to certain knowledge about a given reality. The extent of the direct link between this philosophical speculation and the later Greek philosophy is a matter of dispute. They did not believe that the social and practical dimensions of linguistic meaning could be captured by any attempts at formalization using the tools of logic. A., (ed.) The Harper Collins Dictionary of Philosophy.
On the other hand, theories are incommensurable if they are embedded in starkly contrasting conceptual frameworks whose languages do not.
Philosophy of law (or legal philosophy) is concerned with providing a general philosophical analysis of law and legal institutions.