essentialsthe package of individual liberties and state responsibilities that he endorsesand the way he justifies his conception of liberal essentials. If not the public, at least the philosophers and theologians who are to resolve the difficulties, must make themselves familiar with those difficulties in religious but not spiritual essay their most puzzling form; and this cannot be accomplished unless they are freely stated, and placed in the most advantageous light. 5.4 Millian Feminism This is a significant blemish on Mills feminist credentials. The third, and most cogent reason for restricting the interference of government, is the great evil of adding unnecessarily to its power. (I 9) In this passage, Mill distinguishes paternalistic and moralistic restrictions of liberty from restrictions of liberty based upon the harm principle and claims that the harm prevention is the sole legitimate basis for restricting individual liberties. He must be able to hear them from persons who actually believe them; who defend them in earnest, and do their very utmost for them. But (2) is most plausible if desirable means capable of being desired (see (iii) below). A recent and very thorough treatment of Mills life and work. For experimentation and diversity of life-style expand the deliberative menu and bring out more clearly the nature and merits of options on the menu ( OL II 23, 38; III 1). But exactly how Mill thinks duty is related to happiness is not entirely clear. The Subjection of Women SW (1869) CW XXI.
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Despite Mills blanket prohibitions on paternalism, he does not (consistently) reject paternalism per. Rawls (1971) has argued that the sort of interpersonal sacrifice that utilitarianism requires violates the strains of commitment in a well-ordered society. It is not too much to require that what the wisest of mankind, those who are best entitled to trust their own judgment, find necessary to warrant their relying on it, should be submitted to by that miscellaneous collection of a few wise and many. But this might seem to imply that while the aggregate should pursue or promote the general happiness individuals should pursue or promote their own happiness. Since these are three distinct and rival claims about Mills conception of the final good, any reading must explain away inconsistency as best it can and say something about how these three elements are to be reconciled with one another. Doing so is costly, and we may sometimes promote utility best by not trying to promote it directly.